Page 38 - IDEA Study 8 2017 Direct subsidies and R&D output in firms
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 Figure 4. Estimated effects of the programmes on the pr instrument (NN 3 estimator, cond  Note: Average treatment effects on the treated with 90% confidence intervals. Each dot probabilities of applying for IP protection for treated and untreated firms derived f Positive values imply “crowding-in” effects: R&D subsidies stimulate IP applications, w for the first (t), second (t+1) and third (t+2) year after the start of funding from the resp * IP applications data are not complete due to delays in the publishing process. 36 

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