Page 34 - IDEA Study 8 2017 Direct subsidies and R&D output in firms
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 Figure 2 depicts the main results (see Appendix Table A8 for details). None of theestimated effects are statistically significant for IMPULS, which reconfirms the disappointing results for this programme. Both TIP and ALFA seem to have worked quite well for medium-sized enterprises but the results are mixed otherwise. Somewhat surprisingly, small enterprises, which are usually the most strongly affected by subsidy programmes like these, do not stand out. It is fair to say that small enterprises do not drive the overall positive results. As for large enterprises, there is support for additionality effects from TIP, but not from ALFA yet, although the latter results are preliminary, as emphasized above. 32 

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